Response surface methodology (RSM) for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil: Study of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield

Main Article Content

Nejib Hidouri
Mawaheb Mouftahi


The paper aims to improve biodiesel production from used cooking oils using response surface methodology (RSM). The influence of important factors on biodiesel yield has been investigated by employing a 5-level-3-factor central composite design (CCD). The findings revealed that these factors have considerable impacts on the yield. Besides, fixing temperature value had no detrimental influence on the effectiveness of having adequate mathematical model and obtaining good results. According to the analysis of variance (ANOVA), the molar ratio was found to be the most significant factor. Besides, a second-order models (R2=0.88) were obtained to anticipate the yield as a function of these variables. It is also found that the following ranges of the studied factors can be used to obtain an optimal biodiesel yield: [6.66:1, 8.72:1], [41.62 min, 78.90 min], and [0.91 wt %, 1.79 wt %] for molar ratio, reaction time, and catalyst amount, respectively.

Article Details

How to Cite
N. . Hidouri and M. . Mouftahi, “Response surface methodology (RSM) for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil: Study of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield”, J. Ren. Energies, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 55 -, Oct. 2022.


Cao G, Ruan D, Chen Z, Hong Y, and Cai Z, ‘Recent developments and applications of mass spectrometry for the quality and safety assessment of cooking oil’, TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, vol. 96, pp. 201–211, Nov. 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.trac.2017.07.015.

Chen H G and Zhang Y H P, ‘New biorefineries and sustainable agriculture: Increased food, biofuels, and ecosystem security’, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 47, pp. 117–132, Jul. 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2015.02.048.

Chozhavendhan S, Vijay Pradhap Singh M, Fransila B, Praveen Kumar R, and Karthiga Devi G, ‘A review on influencing parameters of biodiesel production and purification processes’, Current Research in Green and Sustainable Chemistry, vol. 1–2, pp. 1–6, Feb. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.crgsc.2020.04.002.

Bankovic-Ilic I B, Stojkovic I J, Stamenkovic O S, Veljkovic V B, and Hung Y T, ‘Waste animal fats as feedstocks for biodiesel production’, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 32, pp. 238–254, Apr. 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2014.01.038.

Ben Hassen Trabelsi A, Zaafouri K, Baghdadi W, Naoui S, and Ouerghi A, ‘Second generation biofuels production from waste cooking oil via pyrolysis process’, Renewable Energy, vol. 126, pp. 888–896, Oct. 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2018.04.002.

Dianursanti, Delaamira M, Bismo S, and Muharam Y, ‘Effect of Reaction Temperature on Biodiesel Production from Chlorella vulgaris using CuO/Zeolite as Heterogeneous Catalyst’, IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci., vol. 55, p. 012033, Feb. 2017, doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/55/1/012033.

Fattah R A, Mostafa N A, Mahmoud M S, and Abdelmoez W, ‘Recovery of oil and free fatty acids from spent bleaching earth using sub-critical water technology supported with kinetic and thermodynamic study’, Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, vol. 2014, Jan. 2014, doi: 10.4236/abb.2014.53033.

Patterson H B W, ‘Chapter 12 - Quality and Control’, in Hydrogenation of Fats and Oils (Second Edition), G. R. List and J. W. King, Eds. AOCS Press, 2011, pp. 329–350. doi: 10.1016/B978-1-893997-93-6.50018-X.

Thangarasu V and Anand R, ‘11 - Physicochemical fuel properties and tribological behavior of aegle marmelos correa biodiesel’, in Advances in Eco-Fuels for a Sustainable Environment, K. Azad, Ed. Woodhead Publishing, 2019, pp. 309–336. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-08-102728-8.00011-5.

Barret R, ‘3 - Importance and Evaluation of Lipophilicity’, in Therapeutical Chemistry, R. Barret, Ed. Elsevier, 2018, pp. 53–78. doi: 10.1016/B978-1-78548-288-5.50003-2.

Salehi M B, Sefti M V, Moghadam A M, and Koohi A D, ‘Study of Salinity and pH Effects on Gelation Time of a Polymer Gel Using Central Composite Design Method’, Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part B, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 438–451, Mar. 2012, doi: 10.1080/00222348.2011.597331.

Latchubugata C S, Kondapaneni R V, Patluri K K, Virendra U, and Vedantam S, ‘Kinetics and optimization studies using Response Surface Methodology in biodiesel production using heterogeneous catalyst’, Chemical Engineering Research and Design, vol. 135, pp. 129–139, Jul. 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.cherd.2018.05.022.

Khuri A I and Mukhopadhyay S, ‘Response surface methodology’, WIREs Computational Statistics, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 128–149, 2010, doi: 10.1002/wics.73.

Bezerra M A, Santelli R E, Oliveira E P, Villar L S, and Escaleira L A, ‘Response surface methodology (RSM) as a tool for optimization in analytical chemistry’, Talanta, vol. 76, no. 5, pp. 965–977, Sep. 2008, doi: 10.1016/j.talanta.2008.05.019.

Andre I K, ‘Response surface methodology and its applications in agricultural and food sciences’, The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of response surface methodology (RSM) which includes the modeling of a response function, the corresponding choice of design, and the determination of optimum conditions. In addition, the use of RSM in agricultural and food sciences is highlighted by citing several examples taken from a variety of applied journals., vol. Volume 5, no. Issue 5, Apr. 2017, doi: 10.15406/bbij.2017.05.00141.

Meher L C, Vidya Sagar D, and Naik S N, ‘Technical aspects of biodiesel production by transesterification—a review’, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 248–268, Jun. 2006, doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2004.09.002.

Gnanaprakasam A, Sivakumar V M, Surendhar A, Thirumarimurugan M, and Kannadasan T, ‘Recent Strategy of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil and Process Influencing Parameters: A Review’, Journal of Energy, vol. 2013, p. e926392, May 2013, doi: 10.1155/2013/926392.

Islam A and Taufiq-Yap Y H, Advanced Technologies in Biodiesel New Advances in Designed and Optimized Catalysts, THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENERGY ENGINEERING COLLECTION. 2015.

Hayyan A et al., ‘Reduction of high content of free fatty acid in sludge palm oil via acid catalyst for biodiesel production’, Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 920–924, May 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.fuproc.2010.12.011.

Veljkovic V, Lakicevic S, Stamenkovic O, Todorovic Z, and Lazic M, ‘Biodiesel production from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) seed oil with a high content of free fatty acids’, Fuel, vol. 85, no. 17–18, pp. 2671–2675, Dec. 2006, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2006.04.015.

Leung D Y C, Wu X, and Leung M K H, ‘A review on biodiesel production using catalyzed transesterification’, Applied Energy, vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 1083–1095, Apr. 2010, doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2009.10.006.

Changmai B, Vanlalveni C, Ingle A P, Bhagat R, and Rokhum S L, ‘Widely used catalysts in biodiesel production: a review’, RSC Adv., vol. 10, no. 68, pp. 41625–41679, 2020, doi: 10.1039/D0RA07931F.

Hsiao M C, Kuo J Y, Hsieh S A, Hsieh P H, and Hou S S, ‘Optimized conversion of waste cooking oil to biodiesel using modified calcium oxide as catalyst via a microwave heating system’, Fuel, vol. 266, p. 117114, Apr. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2020.117114.

Al-Hamamre Z and Yamin J, ‘Parametric study of the alkali catalyzed transesterification of waste frying oil for Biodiesel production’, Energy Conversion and Management, pp. 246–254, 2014.

Atadashi I M, Aroua M K, Abdul Aziz A R, and Sulaiman N M N, ‘The effects of water on biodiesel production and refining technologies: A review’, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 3456–3470, Jun. 2012, doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2012.03.004.

Chuah L F, Klemeš J J, Yusup S, Bokhari A, and Akbar M M, ‘Influence of fatty acids in waste cooking oil for cleaner biodiesel’, Clean Techn Environ Policy, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 859–868, Apr. 2017, doi: 10.1007/s10098-016-1274-0.

Mohammed N I, Kabbashi N A, Alam M Z, and Mirghani M E S, ‘Optimization of <i>Jatropha</i> Biodiesel Production by Response Surface Methodology’, GSC, vol. 11, no. 01, pp. 23–37, 2021, doi: 10.4236/gsc.2021.111003.

Montgomery D C, Design and analysis of experiments, Eighth edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2013.

Chumuang N and Punsuvon V, ‘Response Surface Methodology for Biodiesel Production Using Calcium Methoxide Catalyst Assisted with Tetrahydrofuran as Cosolvent’, Journal of Chemistry, vol. 2017, pp. 1–9, 2017, doi: 10.1155/2017/4190818.

Winoto V and Yoswathana N, ‘Optimization of Biodiesel Production Using Nanomagnetic CaO-Based Catalysts with Subcritical Methanol Transesterification of Rubber Seed Oil’, Energies, vol. 12, no. 2, p. 230, Jan. 2019, doi: 10.3390/en12020230.

Musa I A, ‘The effects of alcohol to oil molar ratios and the type of alcohol on biodiesel production using transesterification process’, Egyptian Journal of Petroleum, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 21–31, Mar. 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.ejpe.2015.06.007.

Sarve A, Varma M N, and Sonawane S S, ‘Optimization and Kinetic Studies on Biodiesel Production from Kusum (Schleichera triguga) Oil Using Response Surface Methodology’, J. Oleo Sci., vol. 64, no. 9, pp. 987–997, 2015, doi: 10.5650/jos.ess15069.

Kouzu M, Kasuno T, Tajika M, Sugimoto Y, Yamanaka S, and Hidaka J, ‘Calcium oxide as a solid base catalyst for transesterification of soybean oil and its application to biodiesel production’, Fuel, vol. 87, no. 12, pp. 2798–2806, Sep. 2008, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2007.10.019.

Zamberi M M, Ani F N, and Hassan S N H, ‘Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Transesterification of Waste Cooking Oils Using Alkaline Catalysts’, AMM, vol. 695, pp. 289–292, Nov. 2014, doi: 10.4028/

Vyas A P, Verma J L, and Subrahmanyam N, ‘A review on FAME production processes’, Fuel, vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 1–9, Jan. 2010, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2009.08.014.

Sahar et al., ‘Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil: An efficient technique to convert waste into biodiesel’, Sustainable Cities and Society, vol. 41, pp. 220–226, Aug. 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.scs.2018.05.037.