Journal of Renewable Energies <p> </p> <p> </p> <center><strong>The Journal of Renewable Energies (Revue des Energies Renouvelables)</strong></center> <p> </p> <div style="width: 100%; padding: auto; height: auto;"><center><img src="" alt="" width="310" height="400" /><br /><strong>ISSN: 1112-2242</strong><br /><strong>EISSN: 2716-8247</strong></center><center></center></div> <div style="width: 100%; padding: 10px; height: auto;"> <p> </p> <p><strong>Description</strong></p> <p>The Journal of Renewable Energies (Revue des Energies Renouvelables) is an international peer-reviewed journal published by the Renewable Energy Development Center (CDER). The journal was founded in 1998 to promote research and dissemination of knowledge on renewable energy. The Journal of Renewable Energies covers a wide range of topics that include but not limited to solar, wind, geothermal, biomass energy, hydrogen, and the environment. Particular attention is paid to energy analysis and modelling, energy conservation and storage, energy efficiency, energy demand and supply. The journal also welcomes papers on studies with an interaction between renewable energies and other scientific fields such as thermodynamics, mechanics, electricity, chemistry, biology, materials science and the protection of the environment.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Editor-in-chief</strong></p> <div class="name">Amar HADJ ARAB, Director of Research</div> <div class="affiliation">Renewable Energy Development Center (CDER), Algiers, Algeria</div> <div class="email"><a href="" rel="noreferrer"></a></div> <p> </p> <p><strong>Support Contact</strong></p> <p>Mohamed DEBBACHE, Senior researcher.</p> <p>Renewable Energy Development Center (CDER), Algiers, Algeria</p> <p><a href=""></a></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Secretariat</strong></p> <p>Rafik HALALCHI</p> <p>Renewable Energy Development Center (CDER), Algiers, Algeria</p> <p><a href=""></a></p> </div> Renewable Energy Development Center en-US Journal of Renewable Energies 1112-2242 <div id="deed-conditions" class="row"> <ul class="license-properties col-md-offset-2 col-md-8" dir="ltr"> <li class="license by"> <p><strong>Attribution</strong> — You must give <a id="appropriate_credit_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="" data-original-title="">appropriate credit</a>, provide a link to the license, and <a id="indicate_changes_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="" data-original-title="">indicate if changes were made</a>. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.<span id="by-more-container"></span></p> </li> <li class="license sa"> <p><strong>ShareAlike</strong> — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the <a id="same_license_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="" data-original-title="">same license</a> as the original.<span id="sa-more-container"></span></p> </li> </ul> </div> <div class="row"> <ul id="deed-conditions-no-icons" class="col-md-offset-2 col-md-8"> <li class="license"><strong>No additional restrictions</strong> — You may not apply legal terms or <a id="technological_measures_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="" data-original-title="">technological measures</a> that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.</li> </ul> </div> Fuzzy Logic PI controller based Direct Torque control of a Self-Excited Induction Generator through a three-level Rectifier <p align="justify">The main goal of this work is to control the terminal voltage of a Self-excitation induction generator (SEIG) that supplies autonomous load and is driven by a variable speed wind turbine. More advanced strategies of control have been suggested and applied these through a two-level converter. However, in this paper, we propose to study a modified DTC approach which based on the use of three-level converter (NPC structure) and instead of the traditional PI controller, we use a PI fuzzy controller to reduce torque and flux ripples, the induction generator's stator flux and electromagnetic torque are controlled using voltage space vector selection. The proposed control strategy has to maintain constant DC bus voltage regardless of load or wind speed variations. Finally, it should be noted that this control accounts for the induction generator's magnetic saturation phenomenon.</p> Kahina Berabez Farid Hamoudi Kassa Idjdarene Ismail Hacini Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Renewable Energies 2023-04-26 2023-04-26 1 – 12 1 – 12 10.54966/jreen.v1i1.1093 Using two-dimensional graphene lenses to increase the effectiveness of solar panels <p align="justify">We aim to enhance the efficiency of solar panels by covering them with graphene lenses that collect and concentrate light rays onto the panels. The simulation was performed using the Monte Carlo method and provided precise results regarding the improvement of solar panel performance. The simulation showed a substantial increase in the intensity of electrical current at critical densities of the graphene lenses used, suggesting the need for further research to enhance the utilization of renewable energy sources, even in regions with limited sun exposure and varying weather conditions.</p> Abid Boudiar Habala Bendifallah Faten Ziani Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Renewable Energies 2023-04-26 2023-04-26 13 – 18 13 – 18 10.54966/jreen.v1i1.1094 New graphical interface for Sizing PV systems <p align="justify">The objective of this work is to carry out a sizing program of the photovoltaic system isolated from the grid by determining the size of the subsystems that make up the photovoltaic generator, the batteries, the charge regulator and the transformers... etc. This depends on the energy consumed by the total loads, the average annual solar irradiation, and the characteristics of the module and battery as inputs. This program was realized in the form of a graphical interface. We will present as an applied example the sizing of a house located in the south of Algeria, in particular in Ghardaïa, and this program has been broadcast on other sites.</p> Fatima Bouti Khaled Touafek Hafsia Haloui Abdelkrim Khelifa Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Renewable Energies 2023-04-26 2023-04-26 19 – 29 19 – 29 10.54966/jreen.v1i1.1095 Improved Fuzzy Logic MPPT Controller of Stand-alone WECS-based PMSG under Stochastic Wind Environment <p align="justify">This paper discusses the modeling and control of a Standalone WECS-based PMSG, the aim is to achieve an optimal operation of the studied WECS under a typically stochastic wind environment. The Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is guaranteed through the tracking of an optimal generator speed using an Improved Fuzzy Logic Controller (IFLC) based on intelligent algorithms. The effectiveness and the benefits of the proposed approach are demonstrated by numerical simulation using Matlab/SIMULINK. The obtained results indeed confirm a good tracking performance of the proposed controller.</p> Ridha Cheikh Bendib Boualem Hocine Belmili Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Renewable Energies 2023-04-26 2023-04-26 31 – 42 31 – 42 10.54966/jreen.v1i1.1096 Maxi dual axis solar tracker system <p align="justify">In this work, a maxi dual axis solar tracker is proposed. This tracker is used to track the sun path within a day and during a year. The tracking system is composed of two parts: mechanical and electrical parts. The mechanical part is composed of panel carrier, panel carrier rotator according to horizontal/vertical axis, two actuators. The electrical part is composed of light sensor, microcontroller, relays. The light sensor receives an artificial light and sends a potential difference as an analog signal to microcontroller. The microcontroller converts the analog signal into a digital signal using ADC and sends it to relays. The relays activate the two actuators to orient the maxi solar PV into the artificial light with the purpose to produce maximum energy.</p> Kamel Ghanem Ghalem Mohamed Issam Ziane Adel Hamoul Rabee Gheni Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Renewable Energies 2023-04-26 2023-04-26 43 – 50 43 – 50 10.54966/jreen.v1i1.1097 Numerical Simulation Study of CIGS-based Thin Film and Heterojunction Solar Cells: Doping and Buffer/Absorber Layer Optimization for Maximum Efficiency <p align="justify">In this work we present the results of the numerical simulation study of the electrical characteristics of a CIGS-based thin film and heterojunction solar cell and their interpretations. First, we will simulate two solar cells of structures: ZnO/CdS(n)/CIGS(p)/Mo and ZnO/ZnS(n)/CIGS(p)/Mo using the SCAPS-1D software. We will compare the results of the electrical simulation of the CdS cell with those found experimentally. Next, we will compare the electrical simulation results of the CdS cell with the ZnS cell. After that, we will choose the best cell to study the effect of doping and buffer/absorber layer thickness on the photovoltaic parameters (<img src="" /><img src="" />) of the solar cell with the aim of achieving maximum efficiency of the CIGS-based solar cell.</p> Leila Ghalmi Souhila Bensmaine Chams El Hayat Merzouk Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Renewable Energies 2023-04-26 2023-04-26 51 – 63 51 – 63 10.54966/jreen.v1i1.1098 Energy Management of a Photovoltaic System with Hybrid Energy Storage Battery-Super capacitor <p align="justify">This paper describes a method for regulating the voltage of a DC bus of the hybrid power system pv/wind associated with storage devices. A hybrid energy storage system (HESS) that combines batteries and super capacitors (SCs) is an interesting solution. The batteries are employed to meet long-term energy requirements, while the using of SCs, to meet immediately the demand for instantaneous power. In this paper, we propose a new management strategy that manages energy flows between storage devices, by maintaining the SOC of super capacitor and the SOC of the batteries at acceptable levels and to reduce stress on batteries and improve their life cycle. the simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed energy management strategy for the sudden change in power generation and load demand.</p> Ismail Hacini Sofia Lalouni Kassa Idjdarene Kahina Berabez Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Renewable Energies 2023-04-26 2023-04-26 65 – 74 65 – 74 10.54966/jreen.v1i1.1099 Effect of dust on the operation of photovoltaic solar panels installed in the Hodna region - Experimental study <p align="justify">In this work, an experimental study of the effect of dust on the operation of photovoltaic solar panels was conducted in the Hodna region. For this, a monocrystalline type of solar panel was tested with a power of 100W. A quantity of dust was scattered for the first tests during the month of March 2022, then the voltage and current were measured. The second tests were conducted under outdoor M’sila conditions for two months. The results obtained show that the accumulation of dust on the surface of the panels reduces the passage of solar radiation on the one hand, and leads to a rise in the temperature of the panels on the other hand, which reduces the energy produced by the photovoltaic system. Therefore, periodic cleaning of photovoltaic solar panels is necessary.</p> Zakaria Haddad Azzedine Nahoui Mohamed Salmi Maroua Aidjadj Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Renewable Energies 2023-04-26 2023-04-26 75 – 82 75 – 82 10.54966/jreen.v1i1.1100 Improving Photovoltaic Technology by Nanomaterials: a Brief Review <p align="justify">Nanomaterials have unique opto-electronic properties that can aid in the progress of current photovoltaic technology in various aspects and aid in the global transition towards renewable energy sources. In this brief review we discuss how might these materials contribute to newer designs of photovoltaic cells that surpass common Silicon cells and render this technology more efficient and more cost-effective. The types of nanostructures that we discuss are: nanotubes, nanowires, nanorods, graphene and nanotextures.</p> Abdellah Hassaine Amale Mahi Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Renewable Energies 2023-04-26 2023-04-26 83 – 92 83 – 92 10.54966/jreen.v1i1.1101 Triple junction solar cell with Cu In1-x Gex Se as absorbents layers <p align="justify">The design of multi-junction solar cells is guided by both the theoretical optimum bandgap combinations as well as the realistic limitations to materials with these bandgaps. Nowadays, triple-junction III-V multi-junction solar cells are commonly used as GaAs, InGaAs; InGaP ... In this work, we are interested in studying triple junctions based on thin-film solar cells Cu(In1-xGax) Se2, CuInSe2, and CuGaSe2 quaternaries using Silvaco ATLAS software. Incorporating Cu(In0.34Ga0.66) Se2 as an absorber in the middle sub-cell increased the open-circuit voltage by 0.72 V. The highest cell efficiency is 20.89 % (Voc = 2.33 V, Jsc = 9.97 mA/cm2, FF = 89.62%). This triple-junction solar cell demonstrates the potential and limitations of future improvements when voltage and current are considered.</p> Amina Maria Laoufi Latifa Mousli Benmoussa Dennai Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Renewable Energies 2023-04-26 2023-04-26 93 – 102 93 – 102 10.54966/jreen.v1i1.1102 Indoor Lighting Study: case of UDES’ Solar Smart House Bou-Ismail-Algeria <p align="justify">In the residential sector, the energy consumed for lighting represents an important amount of the total energy consumption in a typical house. In this paper, a lighting system in a solar smart house prototype in Bou-Ismail, Algeria, has been studied. This study focuses on the optimization of lighting and the energy consumption in the house, where the experimental and the simulation of the light distribution in the house was carried out using DIALux software. The purpose is to find the most suitable devices that are able to reduce lighting energy consumption and still ensure an optimal visual comfort inside the house. The obtained results show the efficiency of the proposed lighting system, where a reduction in energy consumption of 55.87% has been achieved.</p> Aissa Meflah Fathia Chekired Fethi Akel Yousria Yasmine Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Renewable Energies 2023-04-26 2023-04-26 103 – 113 103 – 113 10.54966/jreen.v1i1.1103 Comparative study of the sputtering yield and photovoltaic efficiency in photovoltaic materials <p align="'justify&quot;">The comparison of the results obtained from argon ions and those obtained from neon ions in various photovoltaic materials in this work led to the identification of factors influencing the ionic sputtering deposition method as well as the effect of the used ion beam type. The SRIM simulation software was used in the study. According to the results, the sputtering yield increases proportionally with the angle and energy of incidence up to a certain point, then decreases. Furthermore, the value disparity confirmed the close relationship between the spraying process and the material structure. The same findings were made when the electronic and nuclear stopping powers were calculated. Solar cells were then simulated using the materials under consideration.</p> Souad Merabet Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Renewable Energies 2023-04-26 2023-04-26 115 – 123 115 – 123 10.54966/jreen.v1i1.1104 Wind Turbine-Fuel Cell Power System for Supplying Isolated Sites <p align="justify">The present work aims to develop a dynamic Wind Turbine-Fuel Cell (WT-FC) hybrid power system under Simulink to meet the energy needs of dwellings in the south of Algeria. The Enercon E40 wind turbine model with a rated power of 500 kW was selected. Simulations were performed for four sites, namely Tinfouye, Belkbir, Tabelbala and Tindouf using daily wind data ranging between 2004 and 2018. The results indicated that Tindouf has a high mean speed of 5.57 m/s at 10 m, resulting in a power density of 194 W/m2. However, a low average speed of 4.81 m/s is recorded at the site of Tabelbala. The maximum energy production is recorded at Belkbir reaching 4183.96 MWh/year with 0.9141 C$/kWh. Therefore, a high-power density of 239 W/m² was noted in Tabelbala. In the environmental analysis, Belkbir was found to have the highest avoided carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rate of 1829.64 tons CO2/kWh.</p> Abdelghani Meziane Fares Meziane Salah Zouaoui Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Renewable Energies 2023-04-26 2023-04-26 125 – 138 125 – 138 10.54966/jreen.v1i1.1105 LMDI decomposition analysis of change in energy consumption in the non-energy industrial sector: The Algerian case <p align="justify">The reduction of energy consumption is an important key not only to improving the performance of the Algerian economy but also to contributing to the effective mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. This study provides a decomposition analysis of a set of sub-sectors belonging to the non-energy industry in terms of energy use. The Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) is used to identify the factors affecting the change in energy consumption between 2002 and 2015. It is estimated that the energy consumption of Algeria's non-energy industries has increased from 4904 ktoe in 2002 to 8818 ktoe in 2015. The findings reveal that the increase in energy consumption in Algeria’s non-energy industry was due to the activity effect, whereas the structure and intensity effects contributed to the decrease. The increase in energy consumption due to the activity effect is largest in the construction materials industry. The intensity effect has a significant impact on energy consumption in the iron and steel, mechanical, electronic, and electrical equipment industries. Furthermore, the construction materials industry had a large share of the total change in energy consumption for the entire non-energy industry during 2002–2015, accounting for 136%.</p> Sarra Robei Noureddine Settou Djilali Messaoudi Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Renewable Energies 2023-04-26 2023-04-26 139 – 148 139 – 148 10.54966/jreen.v1i1.1106 Measurement and Simulation of 2.25 kWp grid-connected amorphous photovoltaic station in a hot desert environment <p align="justify">This work investigates measurements and simulations of a 2.25 kWp grid-connected amorphous photovoltaic power plant mounted on a parked car in a hot desert environment. This power station is located at applied research unit field (URAER), in the Ghardaia region, southern region. The simulation is carried out using PVSYS software. This includes evaluation of meteorological and electrical parameters performance of studied PV system such as reference PV system, PV array yield (YA), Final yield (YF), PV array and system losses, array and system efficiency, performance ratio (PR). The array nominal energy estimated at STC is 5695 kWh/year. The energy estimated injected into the grid is 4648 kWh/year.</p> Layachi Zaghba Messaouda Khennane Amor Fezzani Abdelhalim Borni Abdelkak Bouchakour Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Renewable Energies 2023-04-26 2023-04-26 149 – 161 149 – 161 10.54966/jreen.v1i1.1107