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Photovoltaic conversion is an optimal solution for the electrification of rural areas, especially deserts for the abundance of solar energy in these regions. In recent years, many studies have been carried out to maximize the energy productivity of a PV array system and increase its efficiency. However, the arid and semi-arid region is characterized by a climate whose parameters significantly influence the operation of PV installations. This paper presents an overview investigation of the major internal and external factors significantly affecting both the efficiency and the performance of solar cells and the power of PV systems. These factors include the type of PV material, solar radiation intensity received, cell temperature, parasitic resistances, cloud, and other shading effects, inverter efficiency, dust, module orientation, weather conditions, geographical location, and cable thickness. Simulation of a PV system has been carried out in MATLAB-SIMULINK to prove the effectiveness of the proposed modeling method. These simulation results are useful to predict the production of the PV module under real operating conditions.
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